Michael Betancourt: The First Glitch Video – Notes and Citations
Sources and Citations

Atari 2600 Video Computer System Field Service Manual 2600 / 2600A Domestic (M/N) FD100133, Rev. 02 (Sunnyvale, CA: Atari, Inc, 1983).

"The Electronic Visualization Laboratory, founded in 1973, was devoted to interdisciplinary work—specifically the exploration and development of computer imaging as it intersected with video art."
[The Electronic Visualization Laboratory website, (accessed February 4, 2014).]

"This work has more in common with some threads of avant-garde conversations in art film deriving from poetry and painting than it did with emerging video art growing from conceptual art, performance art and cultural theory. The work of Sandin and collaborators could occasionally be heard characterized as 'video wallpaper,' but its reach was already influential to other pioneering figures such as Nam June Paik and the Vasulkas."
[John Minkowsky, "Design/Electronic Arts: The Buffalo Conference, March 10-13, 1977," in The Emergence of Video Processing Tools, volume 2, Kathy High, Sherry Miller Hocking and Mona Jimenez, eds. (Chicago: Intellect Books, 2014), 407-408.]

"This subjectivist dimension also found application in the kinds of transformations Sandin's Image Processor could produce—both as an analog machine, and as an analog-digital hybrid (by the mid-1970s, Sandin and DeFanti employed a PDP-11 computer for precise control of its effect)."
[Sheldon Brown, "Introduction," in Synthesis: Processing and Collaboration (San Diego: The Gallery@Calit2: 2011), 5.]

 "Organized by Tom Weinberg, who was part of the TVTV video collective, [Nightwatch] initially drew from his connections with the local video community and work made at the Chicago Editing Center that provided access to video production tools."
[Sara Chapman, "Guerrilla Television in the Digital Age," Journal of Film and Video Vol. 64, Nos. 1-2 (Spring/Summer 2012).]

"Many of the electronic oscillation patterns, transformations of the gamma range, isolation of object edges, and the use of signal noise to transform stable video signals are identified as technical failures in the repair handbooks made by RCA."
[John R. Meagher, RCA Television Pict-O-Guide: An Aid to TV Troubleshooting, Volume 1 (Harrison, NJ: Radio Corporation of America, Tube Department, 1949).]

"The formal design of these failures were explicitly noted in Iman Moradi's 2004 discussion Glitch Aesthetics as a discrete collection of tendencies: fragmentation, replication/repetition, and linearity."
[Iman Moradi, "Glitch Aesthetics" (BA dissertation, School of Design Technology, Department of Architecture, The University of Huddersfield, January 27, 2004).]

** *