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Lluis Alexandre Blanco "Val de Omar Translations" Notes and Citations

Introduction
  1. Letter from Stan Brakhage to Walter Newcomb,” July 20, 1958. I would like to thank P. Adam Sitney for pointing me this reference. Stan Brakhage Archives, The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. 
  2. The only exception is Val del Omars inclusion in Amos Vogels Film as Subversive Art (1975), where Val del Omars Aguaespejo Granadino (1955) is identified as one of the great unknown works of world cinema; surfacing at the 1958 First International Experimental Film Festival in Brussels, it just as quickly disappeared and is now unavailable.” Amos Vogel, Film as a Subversive Art (New York: Random House, 1974), p. 64. Historically considered by scholars as an isolated figure, a renewed interest in the artist arose from a major retrospective of his work at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in 2011, triggering an effort to situate Val del Omars work within wider historical narratives. For efforts in placing Val del Omar within histories of experimental cinema, see: Esperanza Collado, Paracinema: La Desmaterialización del Cine en las Prácticas Artísticas (Madrid: Trama; Fundación Arte y Derecho, 2012), and Thomas Beards José Val del Omar a lo largo de tres vanguardias,” in José Val del Omar; Eugeni Bonet (ed.), Desbordamiento de Val del Omar (Granada; Centro José Guerrero; Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, 2010), pp. 56-65. 
  3. “Pero con la mayor frecuencia tendréis … una conversación sobre nuestros derechos y deberes como ciudadanos, pues a la República importa que estéis bien enterados de ello, ya que el pueblo, es decir, vosotros, sois el origen de todos los poderes.” Patronato de Misiones Pedagógicas: septiembre de 1931- diciembre de 1933 (Madrid, 1934), p. 14.
  4.  Víctor Erice, “El llanto de las máquinas,” in Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga (ed.), Ínsula Val del Omar: visiones en su tiempo, descubrimientos actuales (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, 1995), pp. 106-117. See also Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga (ed.), Val del Omar y las Misiones Pedagógicas (Murcia: Dirección de Proyectos e Iniciativas Culturales, Murcia Cultural; Madrid: Publicaciones de la Residencia de Estudiantes, 2003).  
  5. [“El cinema movimiento interesante es hermosísimo, pero como arma costosa manejada hoy por un egoísmo desenfrenado me parece en general peligroso. Francamente peligroso. Ante esta penosa realdad, yo sé de poetas que lo han abandonado refugiándose en la Linterna Mágica.”] José Val del Omar, “Las Misiones Pedagógicas y el cine” (Conferencia pronunciada en Unión Radio dentro del segundo ciclo de Charlas sobre Cinema Educativo), 1934. AVDO. 
  6. [“[El Circuito Perifónico] aprovecha los descuidos del transeúnte y le infiltra insensiblemente nuevas ideas (…).”] José Val del Omar et al, Circuito Perifónico, Ventana Cinegráfica, Falla Ambulante, Radio Mediterráneo: creaciones Movísono (Valencia: La Semana Gráfica, 1940), unpaged [p. 14]. Archivo José Val del Omar. Serie Documentos guerra. CDB. 183286 Arch. VDO 254 Nº Reg. 180096. Fondo Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga – María José Val del Omar. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid. 
  7. This paradox has been reason for controversy in other fields of the Francoist cultural production, such as the emergence of an artistic avant-garde rapidly capitalized by the state as symbol of modernity during the 1950s. The case of Val del Omar remains slightly distinct, as he wished to directly operate from and intervene in the state’s bureaucratic structures themselves. Amongst the many analysis on the Francoist sponsorship of an artistic avant-garde during the 1950s and 1960s, see Jorge Luis Marzo, ¿Puedo hablarle con libertad, excelencia? Arte y poder en España desde 1950 (Murcia: CENDEAC, Centro de Documentación y Estudios Avanzados de Arte Contemporáneo, 2010); Julián Díaz Sánchez, La “oficialización” de la vanguardia artística en la postguerra española: el informalismo en la critica de arte y los grandes relatos (Cuenca: Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1998).
  8.  According to the scarce explicit mentions to his political positioning in his writings, Val del Omar argues that during the Republic and Civil War he was denounced as fascistoid” by some colleagues, while during the dictatorship, he was considered an intruder swimming against the tide…. identified as a communist [rojo], idealist, and crazy.” José Val del Omar, Carta a Antonio Obregón, 1940;” José Val del Omar, Carta a Pío Cabanillas, 23 de diciembre de 1975,” in José Val del Omar; Javier Ortiz-Echagüe (ed.), Escritos de técnica, poética y mística (Madrid: Ediciones de La Central: MNCARS, 2010), pp. 178, 209.
  9. [Val del Omar] fue un profesional, un técnico muy cualificado que trabajó de forma leal mientras las instituciones merecían esa lealtad.” Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga quoted in Román Gubern, Val del Omar, cinemista (Granada: Diputación de Granada, 2004), p. 36. This belief has been directly asserted by Sáenz de Buruaga to the author in several occasions.

 

Sentiment of Kinesthetic Pedagogy
  1. I would like to thank Spyros Papapetros, Joseph Henry, Gabo Camnitzer and Graham Thomson for their advice in these translations. This text is the script for a lecture that Val del Omar delivered to a group of prospective teachers studying at Institución Libre de Enseñanza, ILE [Free Institution of Education]. Madrid, in June 1932. The ILE, Spain’s most important educational institution, was set by Krausist philosopher Francisco Giner de los Ríos in 1876, when opting for a private institution as a way to promote a liberal and progressive education that opposed the orthodoxy and conservatism of the preexisting Spanish neo-scholastic, neo-Thomist education. The sociopolitical foundations of the Second Spanish Republic partially lay on the liberal bourgeois reformism incubated in this institution. After the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931, this institution was a key factor in the process of socialization that looked for political stability and the consolidation of democratic values in the country. The political and intellectual class supporting the Republic primarily entrusted the production of this social consensus to education. The institution was responsible for the introduction in Spain of the new pedagogical movement of Anglo-European reach was titled in Spain as Nueva Escuela, led by figures such as Maria Montessori, Adolfe Ferrière, or John Dewey. As the ILE was seen as embodying the ideals of the Second Republic in Spain, this institution was complete dismantled when it was overthrown by the fascist army at the end of the war. For a history of this institution and its environment during the period when Val del Omar was associated to it, see: Antonio Molero Pintado, La Institución Libre de Enseñanza: un proyecto de reforma pedagógica (Madrid: Anaya, 1985); Antonio Jiménez-Landi, La Institución Libre de Enseñanza y su ambiente. Vol. IV: Periodo de expansión influyente (Madrid: Ministerio de la Educación y Cultura; Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona; Cuenca: Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 1996). 
  2.  In the 1970s, Val del Omar added the following handwritten note to the beginning of the text: “All of the philosophy of audio-visual media being unveiled today by the American universities’ most celebrated professor, Herbert Marshall McLuhan, coincides with my old ideas on Tactil Perception.”
  3.  Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (1857-1935) was an art historian and pedagogue, disciple of the founder of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, Francisco Giner de los Ríos. Cossío served as President of the Board of the Pedagogical Missions, where Val del Omar worked as audiovisual and museum technician from 1932 to 1934. Val del Omar claims that he “got along [with Cossío] from the first moment.” For Val del Omar’s account of his relationship with the late Manuel Bartolomé Cossío, see  José Val del Omar, “Manuel Bartolomé Cossío y la Misiones Pedagógicas (circa 1970),” republished in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, pp. 30-34; José Val del Omar, “Carta a Manuel B. Cossío (1932), republished in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, pp. 174-5; and “Recuerdo a tres Manueles.” Manuel Bartolomé Cossío, Manuel Villegas López y Manuel Fraga Iribarne,” Archivo José Val del Omar. Fondo Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga-María José Val del Omar. Serie Tríptico. Acariño. CDB. 181357 Arch. VDO 213 Nº Reg. 180096, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid.  
  4.  The original manuscript contains a handwritten footnote stating that the apperceptive organ is “tactil”.  According to María José Val de Omar and Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga, “tactil” (pronounced ‘tak til) is a neologism coined by Val del Omar after the removal of the accent of the Spanish  word “táctil” (tak ’til)—Val del Omar intended to give a better semantic response to an alternate mode of synesthetic apperception entangling sight and touch qualities. By displacing the phonic stress of the term to the snap of the vowel “i,” Val del Omar believed that the sounding of the word produced a haptic, shocking reaction. This particular orthography transformed the term into a synesthetic device in and of itself. Román Gubern, Val del Omar Cinemista (Granada: Diputación de Granada, 2004), p. 67.   
  5.  Genesis, 3:19
  6.  In the original, Val del Omar uses the Spanish popular saying “no escarmentarás en cabeza ajena”, which argues that an individual is only able to learn from their own experiences. 
  7. Val del Omar’s metaphor of consciousness and unconsciousness as liquids is probably a reworking of Freud’s topographic model of the mind as presented in “Das Ich und das Es” (1923), where he discusses them as surfaces. Val del Omar’s quote comes from Sigmund Freud, “El Ego y el Yo,” in Obras Completas del Profesor S. Freud, Vol. IX. Translated by Luis López-Ballesteros (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1924), p. 256; original published as Gesammelte Werke, Vol. XIII, pp. 237-289.
  8.  There is no section III. 
  9.  The technician’s description of the learning processes mixed up Freud’s theory of repetition compulsion with sympathy theory. Val del Omar’s use of sympathy can either point to a renewed twentieth century interest in sympathy theories as ingrained in the history of bodily reflexes, or it could also refer to the spread of empathy theory during the 1920s and 1930s Spain, as “simpatía” was actually the word to which José Ortega y Gasset translated Wilhelm Worringer’s notion of Einfühlung in 1911. For a study on Worringer’s influence in Spain at the time, see Javier Sánchez Clemente, “El Concepto de una Autonomía del Arte en la Primera Época de la Revista de Occidente (1923-36).” NORBA, Revista de Arte, vol. XXXI (2011), pp. 89-110. 
  10.  Val del Omar slightly modifies Goethe’s original phrase, translated in English as “we learn to know nothing but what we love.”  
  11. Although referred to as “spirit of destruction,” Val del Omar’s formulation here refers to what Freudian identifies as the “death drive,” as described in “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” (1920). Sigmund Freud, “Más allá del principio del placer,” in Obras Completas del Profesor S. Freud, Vol. II (Psicoanálisis. Los sueños. Mas allá del principio del placer). Translated by Luís López Ballesteros y de Torres Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1923), pp. 299-378; original published as “Jenseits des LustPrinzips” (1920), Gesammelte Werke, Vol. XIII, pp. 3-69.
  12. Val del Omar’s theory of education in “Sentimiento de la Pedagogía Kinestésica” aligns with Freud’s theory of culture as outlined in Das Unbehagen in der Kultur [Civilization and its Discontents], published in German just two years before Val del Omar’s “Sentimiento.” Although Freud’s essay was not published in Spanish until 1944, it was reviewed and discussed in Spanish intellectual circles. For example, Freud’s argument in the book was parsed out shortly after its publication in German by film critic Fernando Vela in the most influent Spanish newspaper at the time, El Sol, directed by José Ortega y Gasset. Fernando Vela, “El último libro de Freud: La felicidad y la cultura.” El Sol (April 20, 1930), p. 2.
  13. During the late 1930s, the notion of motor images as the form of media singular to kinaesthesia starts to appear more explicitly in the work of the pedagogues associated with the ILE. Although several authors had already suggested the mnemonic retention of muscular sensations, the notion of “motor image” as it would then be used in the early twentieth century psychology was coined by French psychologist Alfred Binet in The Psychology of Reasoning. Binet’s work was of particular importance in Spain, where it was immediately translated and discussed. Binet build upon the theories of French psychologist Théodule Ribot who, a few years before, had already pointed that “our perceptions, in particular the important ones, those of sight and touch, imply as integral elements the movement of the eye or the members; and that if movement is an essential element when we see an object really, it must play the same role when we see it ideally.” The idea of an object must then comprise, according to Binet, the images both produced by the sensations of sight, those of touch, and those of the muscles. According to Binet, “the complex impression of a ball, which is there in our hand,” for example, “is the resultant of optical impressions of the eye, impressions of touch, of muscular adjustments of the eye, of movements of the finders, and of the muscular sensations that result therefrom.” The motor image–– “not earlier recognized … due to our knowledge of the muscular sense being comparatively recent” ––inaugurates a whole new model of world recognition, even rethinking the processes taking place in the eye and which rather referred to this organ as a muscle and not as a visual receptor. Alfred Binet, The Psychology of Reasoning: Based on Experimental Researches in Hypnotism. Translated by Adam G. Whyte (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1899), p. 24; originally published as La psychologie du raisonnement: recherches expérimentales par l’hypnotisme (Paris: F. Alcan, 1886), p. 24.

 

Reacting to the Giants of 1956
  1.  Script of a lecture to film students held at the Instituto de Investigaciones y Experiencias Cinematográficas [Institute of Cinematographic Research and Experiences], Madrid, in 1956. The title refers to the famous scene in Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quijote de la Mancha (1615) where Don Quixote attempts to fight windmills when confusing them with giants. The use of this passage was popular in narratives of nationalist exaltation or exceptionalism. In this case, Val del Omar refers to it to advocate for an attitude of resistance against the postwar hegemony of the American film industry. 
  2.  The underlined passages in the original text had been italicized.
  3. Still struggling due the autarchic economic policies of the 1940s, the film technology industry in Spain began slowly recovering during the 1950s. For an overview of the industrial and economic policies around film production and exhibition in Spain during this period, see Josefina Martínez, “El cine de los cincuenta: una década de contradicciones,” in La España de los cincuenta. Edited by Abdón Mateos López (Madrid: Editorial Eneida, 2008), pp. 337-368. 
  4. Val del Omar refers here to the first verse of Saint John’s Gospel: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Note that in Spanish, the original Latin word “logos” was translated as verb, not word. John, 1:1. 
  5.  On the word “tactil,” see footnote 4 in Sentiment of the Kinesthetic Pedagogy.  
  6. As Javier Ortiz-Echagüe has pointed, this formulation points to the tension between Saint John Gospel’s first verse, and its reinterpretation by Goethe in Faust, “In the beginning was the Act” (Faust, 1: 3). The dichotomy between these two versions was interrogated by philosopher Miguel de Unamuno, of which Val del Omar was a usual reader. 
  7. The word paraula is an archaism that comes from the ancient Castilian Spanish word “parabla,” derived from the Latin “parabola,” meaning simile, comparison. It was first used by Val del Omar in the description of his project for a sound publishing house, the Corporación del Fonema Hispánico [Corporation of the Hispanic Phoneme] in 1942. In describing this initiative, Val del Omar talks of Castilian Spanish as the “conduit for a mystical key” which contemporary Spaniards should reclaim through an orality understood as springing from the spread of Christianism through Latin language. José Val del Omar, “Corporación del Fonema Hispánico” (1942), in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, pp. 57-66  
  8. Val del Omar’s first film, shot in 1925 and subsequently destroyed by the filmmaker himself, En un rincón de Andalucía [In a Corner of Andalusia], depicted the experience of a gypsy blind woman living in the Albaicín’s caves in Granada. Dissatisfied with the result, which he considered an artistic failure, Val del Omar destroyed the film after its final edit. Román Gubern, Val del Omar, cinemista, pp. 12-14.
  9. According to José Antonio Cabezas, during his retreat, Val del Omar wrote a book on film techniques. If true, no trace of this book remained. José Antonio Cabezas, “José Val del Omar, inventor y poeta.” España en Tánger (October 1952), unpaged.    
  10. These quotations actually come from several articles penned in Madrid before the Spanish Civil War such as “Sentimiento de la pedagogía kinestésica [Sentiment of Kinesthetic Pedagogy],” also included in this issue, and the “Manifiesto de la Asociación Creyentes del Cinema [Manifesto of the Believers in Cinema Association],” which Spanish version can be found in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, pp. 50-51.
  11.  In retrospect, Val del Omar claimed that this invention actually bore similarities to what came to be known as the zoom, even claiming he was the inventor of this procedure, which had been around since the turn of the century. For his detailed description of this technique, see Antonio Gascón, “Un muchacho español logra dos inventos que revolucionarán el arte del cinema.” La Pantalla, Issue 40 (September 30, 1928), p. 620; reproduced in Gonzalo Sáenz de Buruaga, María José Val del Omar (ed.) Val del Omar Sin Fin (Granada: Diputación Provincial de Granada, Filmoteca de Andalucía, 1992), pp. 49-51.
  12. Pesetas was the basic unitary currency in Spain from 1868 to 2002.
  13. After several failed projects, in 1955 Val del Omar rebooted his career with the release of his first film after the Spanish Civil War, Aguaespejo Granadino (La Gran Siguirya), and his participation as n September 1955, as the chief audiovisual technician at the Instituto de Cultura Hispánica [Institute of Hispanic Culture], José Val del Omar represented Spain in the UNESCO’s First Meeting of Experts to Promote International Cooperation between Film and Television. He participated with two papers: “Teoría de la Visión Tactil [Tactil’ Vision Theory],” and “La Diafonía y las razones de su existencia en televisión” [Diaphony and the Reasons for its Existence in Television].”
  14. The denomination “Celtiberian,” taken from the group of tribes that inhabited the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC, is used to refer to individuals or attitudes that ascribed to profoundly traditional aspect Spanish Culture. 
  15. Miguel de Unamuno, “Sobre la tumba de Costa. A la más cara memoria de un espíritu sincero.” (Nuestro tiempo, no. 174, marzo de 1911), in Obras Completas. Vol. VIII (Madrid: Fundación José Antonio de Castro, 2007), p. 1027. Unamuno’s refusal to technology became the object of intensive debate throughout the twentieth century. On the origin of this quote and its subsequent popularity, see Josep Eladi Baños, “Cien Años de ¡Que inventen ellos! Una Aproximación a la Visión Unamuniana de la Ciencia y la Técnica.” Quark (January–December 2017), pp. 93-99. 
  16.  Miguel de Unamuno, Vida de don Quijote y Sancho según Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra explicada y comentada por Miguel de Unamuno, I-IX (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1938), p. 65. 
  17. Diaphony is a technique patented by Val del Omar in 1944 sound comes both from the screen and from the back of the auditorium, ideally clashing in the head of the spectator. 
  18. On September 1955, as the chief audiovisual technician at the Instituto de Cultura Hispánica [Institute of Hispanic Culture], Val del Omar represented Spain in the UNESCO’s First Meeting of Experts to Promote International Cooperation between Film and Television. He participated with two papers: “Teoría de la Visión Tactil [Tactil’ Vision Theory],” and “La Diafonía y las razones de su existencia en televisión [Diaphony and the Reasons for its Presence in Television].”
  19. Val del Omar summarizes here a longer, well-known quote by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, which says that: “Nessuna cosa si può amare ne odiare, se prima non si ha cognition di quella.” Freud analyzed this quote in his analysis of Leonardo’s childhood memories through his paintings in a 1910 article. Sigmund Freud, “Leonardo da Vinci and A Memory of His Childhood” (1910). [“Eine Kindheiserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci,” Gesammelte Werke: VIII, p. 140].
  20.  Teresa de Jesús, Camino de perfección (Madrid: Nicolás de Castro Palomino, 1851), Chapter 6, no. 2; in English, The Way of Perfection. Translated by the Benedictines of Stanbrook (New York, NY: Cosimo Classics, 2007), p. 39.  
  21. Val del Omar refers here to an interview to David Sarnoff, president of the Radio Corporation of America from 1930 to 1970 at The Voice of America propaganda radio, which was reported about in the Spanish press. See for example, R. S. “Vanidades de la ciencia.” ABC (December 12, 1956), p. 39.
  22. Val del Omar refers to Marcelino, the leading character in the 1955 film Marcelino, pan y vino [Miracle of Marcelino]. This work, which takes place in an impoverished Nineteenth-Century Spain, portrays the story of Marcelino, an orphan living in a monastery which befriends an animated statue of a Crucified Christ. The film, directed by Hungarian director Ladislao Vadja, was a commercial and critical success. It was awarded a Special Mention at the 8th Cannes Film Festival, a Special Mention to the performance of child actor Pablito Calvo, and a Silver Bear at the 5th Berlin International Film Festival. Val del Omar’s shortfilm Aguaespejo Granadino (1955) was screened aside Marcelino the Semana del Cine Español de Buenos Aires in 1956. 
  23. The lecture contains descriptions on two of Val del Omar’s most important inventions: Diaphonic sound and Tactil Vision. Due to its length, and the availability of texts in English on these two inventions, the text has been abridged to focus on its more theoretical arguments. José Val del Omar, “Theory of the Tactile Vision,” in Claudia Gianetti (ed.), El discreto encanto de la tecnología. Artes en España (Badajoz: Museo Extremeño e Iberoamericano de Arte Contemporáneo, Junta de Extremadura, Consejería de Cultura y Turismo, 2008), pp. 336-341.
  24. In this passage, Val del Omar refers to attractions of the Granada region or close by, in Southern Spain. The “perpetual snow” is to be found at the Sierra Nevada mountains, while the microclimate which allows for the cultivation of tropical species takes places around the Río Verde Basin. The chasm he points to is, most probably, the Sima Honda, which drops 133 meters, at the Sierra de las Nieves Mountain in Málaga, while the communion bread is raised in the masses held at the Virgen de las Nieves Chapel at the top of the highest peak in the Iberian Peninsula, the Mulhacén.  
  25. Muerte de un ciclista [Death of a Cyclist] is a 1955 film by Juan Antonio Bardem. It revolves around the guilt experienced by a couple of lovers, a graduate professor and a married elite housewife, that accidentally strike a cyclist on their way back to Madrid from a weekend getaway. After the cyclist is reported dead in a local newspaper, the lovers will fear to be discovered and have their relationship exposed. The film was awarded a FIPRESCI Award at the 8th Cannes Film Festival in 1955. 
  26. The word “Arriba” was a motto popularized by the Spanish fascist party La Falange,  
  27. Coplas a la muerte de su padre.” Jorge Manrique, Poesías Escogidas (Barcelona: Cisne, 1941), pp.  .  
  28.  Santa Teresa de Ávila, Libro de las fundaciones de las Hermanas Descalzas Carmelitas (1662), p.   
  29. José Val del Omar, “Las Misiones Pedagógicas y el cine,” in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, p. 46. 
  30. As Ortiz-Echagüe’s detailed analysis shows, Val del Omar’s indistinct use of “meta-mysticism [meta-mística]” and “mechanic mysticism [meca-mística]” evidences that those words are nuanced ways of referring to a single theoretical foundation structuring the filmmakers’ practice. Javier Ortiz-Echagüe, “La Mecamística,” in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística, p. 269. 
  31. With the use of the original word “luces,” which in Spanish is to the plural of light (lights) as well as it refers to enlightenment and intelligence, Val del Omar intends a pun.

 

The Mechanical Mysticism [meca-mística] of Cinema
  1. The term “mecamística” is a neologism coined by Val del Omar from the conjunction of the Spanish words “mecánica,” mechanics, and “mística” (mysticism). José Val del Omar, “La mecamística del cine.” Cinestudio: Revista de Cine, Issue 1 (May 1961), p. 2. The notion of mecha-mysticism. For an archaeology of this term in Val del Omar’s writings, which first appears related to his experience in the Pedagogical Missions in 1934, see Javier Ortiz-Echagüe, “La mecamística,” in Escritos de Técnica, Poética y Mística. Edited by Javier Ortiz-Echagüe (Madrid: La Central, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía; Pamplona: Universidad de Navarra, 2011), pp. 269-272. 
  2.  Val del Omar’s resorted to a very specific vocabulary to rethink codified forms of labor in filmic production. Scholarship on the filmmaker has deemed these words as neologisms. This is particularly the case in the interpretations of Val del Omar’s substitution of the most common word for filmmaker, that of “cineasta,” with his preference for less successful foreign adaptations such as “cinemista” or “cinematurgo.” The popularization of the suggestion that “cinemista” derived from the word “alchemist (alquimista),” first made by film historian Román Gubern, subsequently interpreted this self-description as portraying an exceptional practice equally invested in cinema as in magic. Román Gubern, Val del Omar, cinemista (Granada: Diputación de Granada, 2004), p. 15. During the 1920s and 1930s in Spain, see José D. de Quijano, “De los neologismos en el cine.” ABC (July 08, 1936), p. 14. I would rather argue that Val del Omar’s utilization of words in disuse points to his romanticized idea of the origins of film.